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Doctoral School on "The Political Economy of Skills and Inequality in Western Welfare States

Doctoral School of Behavioral, Social and Health Sciences

Tallinn University

October 4-5, 2017

From 10a.m-5p.m.

Marius R. Busemeyer

Professor of Political Science

University of Konstanz

Marius.Busemeyer....at....uni-konstanz.de

Please register here untill 2nd of October.

Course is supported by the project "TU TEE - Tallinn University as a promoter of intelligent lifestyle"

Objectives:

This seminar provides a thorough introduction into the study of education policies and politics from the perspective of comparative welfare state research and comparative political economy. The class provides an overview of the most important debates in the field: the link between education and social inequality, the role of partisan politics, the connection between skill formation and different varieties of capitalism, and the study of public opinion on education.

The first section of the course will focus on the relationship between education and the welfare state: To what extent can education be regarded as an integral component of encompassing welfare state regimes? What is the role of educational institutions in mitigating or exacerbating inequality? Do welfare states and education systems have common historical origins?

Starting from this very general overview, we will then focus on the role of partisan politics and the extent to which differences in the balance of power between different party families may explain differences in education policy output, both historically as well as in the contemporary period. In particular, we will address questions such as: Which different patterns of partisan competition over education policy can we observe? How do these patterns change over time? What are the positions of leftist, centrist and conservative parties on different aspects in education policy? Do they differ across countries?

The third section of the course will concentrate on the link between education and training policies on the one hand and different varieties of capitalism (VoC) on the other. The topic of skill formation occupies a central place in the VoC paradigm. How is skill formation related to the differentiation between liberal and coordinated market economies? What is “skill specificity” and how can we measure it? What are the implications of the “skill specificity” debate for the role of employers and unions in the welfare state?

In the fourth section of the class, we move from the macro level of policy-making to the micro-level of individual attitudes and preferences. In particular, we are interested in understanding how public opinion on education policy varies across countries as well as between different groups of individuals, how public opinion on education is different from other fields of the welfare state (public opinion on old age, unemployment and health care) and whether new political coalitions in support of the social investment approach focusing on education are emerging. Finally, we are also interested in how educational institutions shape patterns of political participation.

 Basic literature:

 Busemeyer, Marius R., 2015. Skills and Inequality: Partisan Politics and the Political Economy of Education and Training Reforms in Western Welfare States, Cambridge University Press.

Busemeyer, Marius R./Nikolai, Rita, 2010. “Education”, in: Castles, Francis G. / Jane Lewis / Herbert Obinger / Chris Pierson / Stephan Leibfried (Ed.): The Oxford Handbook on Welfare State Policy, 2010. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press: 494-508.

Busemeyer, Marius R./Trampusch, Christine. 2011. Comparative Political Science and the Study of Education (Review Article), British Journal of Political Science, 41/2: 413-443.

Iversen, T./Stephens, J. D., 2008: Partisan politics, the welfare state, and three worlds of human capital formation, Comparative Political Studies 41(4-5): 600-637.

 Wednesday, October 4, morning session:

 1.)   Introduction and overview

 Topics/questions:

-          Motivation: why study education?

-          To what extent is the perspective of this class different from others?

-          overview of the topics discussed in the course

 2.)   Education and the welfare state: Historical origins and contemporary patterns

 Topics/questions:

-          similarities in institutional set-up of education and training systems and welfare state regimes

-          association between educational institutions and social as well as educational inequality

-          historical development of education systems in selected country cases (US, Sweden, Germany, UK)

 Literature:

Allmendinger, Jutta/Leibfried, Stephan, 2003: Education and the Welfare State: Germany’s Poverty and Plenty in the Many Worlds of “Competence Distribution” in the EC and the OECD, Journal of European Social Policy 13/1: 63-81.

Busemeyer, Marius R., 2015. Skills and Inequality: Partisan Politics and the Political Economy of Education and Training Reforms in Western Welfare States, Cambridge University Press, Chapter 4.

Busemeyer, Marius R./Nikolai, Rita, 2010. “Education”, in: Castles, Francis G. / Jane Lewis / Herbert Obinger / Chris Pierson / Stephan Leibfried (Ed.): The Oxford Handbook on Welfare State Policy, 2010. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press: 494-508.

Busemeyer, Marius R./Trampusch, Christine. 2011. Comparative Political Science and the Study of Education (Review Article), British Journal of Political Science, 41/2: 413-443.

Heidenheimer, Arnold, 1981. Education and Social Security Entitlements in Europe and America; in: Flora, P./Heidenheimer, A.J. (eds.): The Development of the Welfare State in Europe and America, New Brunswick, London: Transaction Books, pp. 269-304.

 Afternoon session:

 3.)   Partisan politics and education: Party positions, competition and policy output

 Topics/questions:

-          party positions on education in international comparison: convergence or divergence?

-          change in party positions over time

-          impact of institutional context on party positions

-          partisan preferences on education policy

-          role of partisan politics with regard to policy output in education

-          importance of partisan factors relative to other explanatory variables and changing impact over time

 Literature:

Ansell, Ben, 2008. University Challenges: Explaining Institutional Change in Higher Education, World Politics 60/January 2008: 189-230.

Boix, Carles, 1997. Political Parties and the Supply Side of the Economy: The Provision of Physical and Human Capital in Advanced Economies, 1960-1990, American Journal of Political Science 41(3): 814-845.

Busemeyer, M. R., 2009: Social democrats and the new partisan politics of public investment in education, Journal of European Public Policy 16(1): 107-126.

Busemeyer, Marius R., 2015. Skills and Inequality: Partisan Politics and the Political Economy of Education and Training Reforms in Western Welfare States, Cambridge University Press, Chapter 1.

Busemeyer, Marius R./Franzmann, Simon/Garritzmann, Julian, 2011: Who owns education? Cleavage structures in the partisan competition over educational expansion, West European Politics 36(3): 521-546.

Iversen, T./Stephens, J. D., 2008: Partisan politics, the welfare state, and three worlds of human capital formation, Comparative Political Studies 41(4-5): 600-637.

Jakobi, Anja P., 2011: Political Parties and the Institutionalization of Education: A Comparative Analysis of Party Manifestos, Comparative Education Review 55/2: 189-209.

 Thursday, October 5, morning session:

 4.)   Education and Varieties of Capitalism: Education, training and the labor market

 Topics/questions:

-          introduction/review of VoC perspective on skill formation: difference between general and specific skills systems, institutional complementarities between skill formation, industrial relations and coordinated wage bargaining

-          history of vocational education and training and its connection to industrial relations in selected country cases

-          What is skill specificity? How can we measure it?

-          Debate about link between skill specificity and social policy preferences

-          Implications for social inequality and welfare states

 Literature:

Bosch, Gerhard, and Jean Charest, ‘Vocational Training and the Labour Market in Liberal and Coordinated Market Economies’, Industrial Relations Journal, 39 (2008), 428–47.

Busemeyer, Marius R. 2009. Asset specificity, Institutional Complementarities and the Variety of Skill Regimes in Coordinated Market Economies, Socio-Economic Review 7(3): 375-406.

Culpepper, Pepper D./Thelen, Kathleen, 2008: Institutions and Collective Actors in the Provision of Training: Historical and Cross-National Comparisons; in: Mayer, K.U./Solga, H. (eds.): Skill Formation: Interdisciplinary and Cross-National Perspectives, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 21-49.

Emmenegger, Patrick. 2009. Specificity versus Replaceability: The Relationship between Skills and Preferences for Job Security Regulations, Socio-Economic Review 7(3): 407-430.

Estevez-Abe, M./Iversen, T./Soskice, D., 2001. Social protection and the formation of skills: A reinterpretation of the welfare state, in: Hall, P./Soskice, D. (Eds.): Varieties of Capitalism: The institutional foundations of comparative institutional advantage, Oxford University Press, pp. 145-183.

Hall, Peter/Soskice, David, 2001. An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism, in: Hall, P./Soskice, D. (Eds.): Varieties of Capitalism: The institutional foundations of comparative institutional advantage, Oxford University Press, pp. 1-68.

Streeck, Wolfgang, 1992. On the Institutional Conditions of Diversified Quality Production; in: Streeck, W. / Matzner, E. (eds.): Beyond Keynesianism: The Socio-Economics of Production and Full Employment, Aldershot, Brookfield: Edward Elgar, pp. 21-61.

 Afternoon session:

 5.)   Public opinion on education: Attitudes and preferences, feedback effects from institutions to preferences

 Topics/questions:

-          which factors determine public opinion on education policy on the individual level?

-          To what extent is public opinion on education different from public opinion in other parts of the welfare state?

-          Policy feedback: how do national contexts shape patterns of public opinion?

-          Definition of negative and positive feedback effects, theories about which type will dominate under which conditions

-          Feedback of educational institutions on patterns of political participation

 Literature:

Ansell, Ben W., 2010. From the Ballot to the Blackboard: The Redistributive Political Economy of Education, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 4, S. 119-163.

Busemeyer, Marius R., 2012. Inequality and the Political Economy of Education: An Analysis of Individual Preferences in OECD Countries, Journal of European Social Policy, 22(3), 219-240.

Busemeyer, Marius R., 2015. Skills and Inequality: Partisan Politics and the Political Economy of Education and Training Reforms in Western Welfare States, Cambridge University Press, Chapter 5.

Busemeyer, Marius R./Cattaneo, Maria Alejandra/Wolter, Stefan C., 2011: Individual Policy Preferences for Vocational Versus Academic Education: Microlevel Evidence for the Case of Switzerland, Journal of European Social Policy, 21/3: 253-273.

Busemeyer, Marius R./Goerres, Achim/Weschle, Simon, 2009: Attitudes towards Redistributive Spending in an Era of Demographic Ageing: The Rival Pressures from Age and Income in 14 OECD Countries, Journal of European Social Policy 19/3: 195-212.

Mettler, Suzanne/Welch, Eric, 2004: Civic Generation: Policy Feedback Effects of the GI Bill on Political Involvement over the Life Course, British Journal of Political Science, 34: 497-518.

Pierson, Paul, 1993. When effect becomes cause: Policy feedback and political change. World Politics 45(4): 595-628.

 

Short bio:

Marius R. Busemeyer is a Full Professor of Political Science at the University of Konstanz, Germany. His research focuses on comparative political economy and welfare state research, education and social policy, public spending, theories of institutional change and, more recently, public opinion on the welfare state. Busemeyer studied political science, economics, public administration and public law at University of Heidelberg and the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. He holds a doctorate in political science from the University of Heidelberg. He worked as a senior researcher with Wolfgang Streeck and Kathleen Thelen at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in Cologne. He held visiting professor- and fellowships at the Center for European Studies at Harvard, the WZB Berlin, the Nuffield College at Oxford, the Department for Economics at University of Paris 1 (Panthéon-Sorbonne) and the Amsterdam Center for Inequality Studies (AMCIS). He received two major grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG)’s Emmy Noether program and the European Research Council (ERC) Starting Grant scheme. His publications include the book Skills and Inequality (Cambridge University Press, Winner of the 2015 Stein Rokkan Prize for Comparative Social Science Research), an edited volume (with Christine Trampusch) on The Political Economy of Collective Skill Formation (Oxford University Press), a recently edited special issue of the Socio-Economic Review on The political economy of skills and inequality (with Torben Iversen) and a large number of journal articles in leadings outlets of the discipline, such as the British Journal of Political Science, the Socio-Economic Review, the European Journal of Political Research, the Journal of European Social Policy, the Journal of European Public Policy and the British Journal of Industrial Relations. Busemeyer has been appointed member of the Young Academy of Europe.