Various resources are suggested to assist you in your study of this Learning Object. The following resources and readings are available and used for developing this Learning Object.

Andretta, S. (Ed). (2007). Change and challenge: information literacy for the 21st century. Adelaide: Auslib Press.

Bawden, D. (2001). Information and digital literacies: a review of concepts. Journal of Documentation, 57(2), 218-259.

Behrens, S.J. (1994). A conceptual analysis and historical overview of information literacy. College and Research Libraries, 55(4), 309-322.

Breivik, P. S. (1998). Student learning in the information age. Phoenix, AZ: American Council on Education and Oryx Press.

Bruce, C. S. and Candy, P., (Eds.) (2000). Information literacy around the world: advances in programs and research. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Charles Sturt University.

Dewey, B. I. (Ed.) (2001). Library user education: powerful learning, powerful partnership. London: The Scarecrow Press, 1-17.

Doyle, C. S. (1994). Information literacy in an information society: a concept for the information age. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse. (ERIC document ED 372763.

Fjällbrant, N. & Malley, I. (1984). User education in libraries. 2nd edn. London: Clive Bingley.

Loertscher, D. V. and Woolls, B. (2000). Information literacy: a review of the research, a guide for practicioners and researchers. 2nd edition. Hi Willow Research and Publishing.

Martin, A. and Rader, H. (Eds.) (2003). Information & IT literacy: enabling learning in the 21st century. London: Facet Publishing.

Rockman, I. F. & associates (2004). Integrating information literacy into the higher education curriculum: practical models for transformation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 

Savolainen, R. (2002). Network competence and information seeking on the Internet: from definitions towards a social cognitive model. Journal of Documentation, 58 (2), 211-226.

Spitzer, K. L., Eisenberg, M.B. and Lowe, C. A. (1998). Information literacy: essential skills for the information age. Syracuse, N.Y.: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, Syracuse University. (ED 427 780). Retrieved 13 July 2003 from

Town, J. S. (2002b). Information literacy and the information society, In: Challenge and change in the information society, edited by S. Hornby & Z. Clarke. (pp. 83-103.) London: Facet.

Virkus, S. (2003). Information literacy in Europe: a literature review. Information Research, 8(4), paper no. 159

Webber, S. & Johnston, B. (2000). Conceptions of information literacy: new perspectives and implications. Journal of Information Science, 26 (6), 381-397.

Wilson, L. A. (2001). Information literacy: fluency across and beyond the university, In: Library user education: powerful learning, powerful partnership, edited by B. I. Dewey. (pp. 1-17). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc.


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Sirje Virkus, Tallinn University, 2009