Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters

GLOBE project's overall purpose was:

  • Research how differences in culture are related to differences in approaches to leadership
  • How different cultures view leadership behavior in others.

Research identified six global leadership behaviors.

Global leadership behaviors:

  • Charismatic/value-based leadership reflects the ability to inspire, to motivate, and to expect high performance from others based on strongly held core values
  • Team-oriented leadership emphasizes team building and a common purpose among team members.
  • Participative leadership reflects the degree to which leaders involve others in making and implementing decisions.
  • Humane-oriented leadership emphasizes being supportive, considerate, compassionate, and generous.
  • Autonomous leadership refers to independent and individualistic leadership, which includes being autonomous and unique.
  • Self-protective leadership reflects behaviors that ensure the safety and security of the leader and the group (Northouse, 2007, p. 314).


Sirje Virkus, Tallinn University, 2009