Both management and leadership are essential for organizational success. For example, Northouse (2007, p.11) notes, if an organization has strong management without leadership, the outcome can be stifling and bureaucratic. Conversely, if an organization has strong leadership without management, the outcome can be meaningless or misdirected change for change's sake. To be effective, organizations need to nourish both competent management and skilled leadership.

Thus, organizational effectiveness is dependent upon both

  • capable leadership and
  • sound management

It does not follow from one or the other, only from the successful combination of the two.



Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives 3.0 License

Sirje Virkus, Tallinn University, 2009