Other knowledge typologies

Lundvall and Johnson's taxonomy of knowledge

Lundvall and Johnson (1994) propose

  • know-what,
  • know- why,
  • know-how, and
  • know-who.

Know-what refers to facts, and is characterised by its ability to be broken down into bits. Know-why refers to knowledge about causality and eliminates the need for trial and error. Know-why is especially important for technological development in science-based areas. Know-how refers to skills or the capability to do something. Know-who involves knowledge about who knows what and who knows to do what. Know-who also includes the social skills that enable cooperation and communication with coworkers and collaborators (http://www.ukessays.co.uk/essays/business/information-and-knowledge.php).

Blackler's taxonomy of knowledge

Embrained knowledge refers to knowledge that is dependent on conceptual skills and cognitive abilities. Embodied knowledge is action oriented and is likely to be only partly explicit. Zuboff (1988) states that such knowledge depends on peoples' physical presence, on sentient and sensory information, physical cues and face-to-face discussions, is acquired by doing, and is rooted in specific contexts. Encultured knowledge refers to the process of achieving shared understandings. Cultural meaning systems are intimately related to the processes of socialisation and acculturation; such understandings are likely to depend heavily on language, and hence to be socially constructed and open to negotiation.

Embedded knowledge is knowledge which resides in systemic routines. Encoded knowledge is information conveyed by signs and symbols. To the traditional forms of encoded knowledge, such as books, manuals and codes of practice, has been added Information encoded and transmitted electronically  (http://www.ukessays.co.uk/essays/business/information-and-knowledge.php).

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