Types of Knowledge

Knowledge can be characterized in many ways and several authors have suggested different types of knowledge:

  • Explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge is suggested by Michael Polanyi (1966) and Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995).
  • Nickols (2000) suggests the concept of implicit knowledge, which is knowledge that can be articulated but has not been,
  • Zack (1999) describes declarative, procedural, causal, and relational knowledge and also refers to core, advanced and innovative knowledge.
  • DeLong and Fahey (2000) distinguished among human, social, and structured knowledge.
  • Aguayo (2004) talks about substantive and entrepreneurial knowledge.
  • There is also shallow knowledge (readily recalled) and deep knowledge (acquired through years of experience).
  • Individual, social, and pragmatic knowledge.
  • Embodied, encoded and procedural knowledge.
  • Procedural (repetitive, stepwise) versus episodic (grouped by episodes) knowledge and semantic knowledge.

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