Schools in Europe face a wide variety of challenges, ranging from improvement of educational outcomes to contributing to social cohesion in society; adapting to different background of pupils; creating more equal opportunities for kids of all ages, including new developments in ICT and media within the teaching and learning process etc. All these challenges can be taken up through policy initiatives at the national, regional or local level.
However, for sustainable change that fits within the local context of a school, it is essential that changes are not initiated from outside the school, but taken up from inside the school. This requires the development of adaptive school cultures that can respond in a flexible and pro-active way to new developments in society and integrate these within their local school practice. Both school leaders and teacher leaders need to develop their agency to identify developments that need a response from the school, and need to initiate and implement changes within their schools that are an effective answer to these developments.